IT Terminology

A comprehensive IT dictionary for experts and software developers. Recognize terms and acronyms used in software development.

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Abbreviation of Immediately invoked (IIFE) – a JavaScript function that is run as soon as it is defined.

Active Directory (AD) – a directory service for Windows servers. A database and set of services that connect users to the network resources (virtual resources) they need to perform tasks. The database (or directory) contains important information about the software’s area of operations, which users are allow to what and computers are entitled to which tasks.

Active Server Pages (ASP) – a server-side scripting language developed by Microsoft. Technology for creating server-side dynamic Web pages based on one of the available scripting languages.

Artificial intelligence (AI) – in computer science and cognitive science, it also means creating models and programs that simulate at least partially intelligent behavior. Intelligence exhibited by computers and machines, as contrasted with the natural intelligence exhibited by animals, humans. intelligence shown by computers and machines, as contrasted with the natural intelligence exhibited by animals, humans. AI refers to any system that perceives its environment and takes actions that increase the chances of achieving its goals. It has found uses in industry for machine-based improvements in production. One example related to AI implemented for industry is AI recognition systems installed in factories, etc. Such systems can perform quality recognition (detecting defective products etc.) and remove them from the production line before they reach out the customer.


Asynchronous JavaScript And XML (AJAX) – a set of techniques that use client-side web technologies to create asynchronous communication in web applications. Is a way of sending data in which data is sent irregularly and waiting for a response does not block other requests.


Augmented reality (AR) –  a system that combines the real world with the computer-generated world. Usually a camera image is used, on which are superimposed, real-time generated 3D graphics. There are also applications supporting only sound. AR can be defined as a system that contains three basic features: an interactive combination of aspects of the real world converted to a virtual environment, combines the interaction of aspects of the environment in real time along with an accurate reflection of real objects in a virtual 3D format.

Application Management Services (AMS) – AMS Services, services offered in relation to the implemented software Solution that is used on the Production (for real business operations). Under the AMS, Novacura consultants solve problems, offer help in relation to the solution, administrate the Solution and also do the “small development” –  Novacura consultants change / expand solution by implementing small modifications (bigger modifications are implemented in separate projects as regular Consulting Services).


Application Programming Interface (API) – refers to any software with a specific function. An interface should be understood as a delivery service between two applications. This service defines how the two applications communicate with each other through requests and responses. This relation can be seen in the connections created between ERP systems and other software for mobile solutions in industrial operations. For example in logistics: connecting a mobile order picking application to an ERP system. Data between the ERP and the mobile application are exchanged on a regular basis. Establishing API connection between ERP and mobile software let improve operations and is cost-effective comparing to an individual ERP system upgrade.

The Oracle ASFU License (Application Specific Full Use) – is a limited type of license sold by an Oracle partner, which can be carved out in combination with a specific application sold by IFS and other partners. 

AV1 Image File Format (AVIF) – a very efficient image compression format. AVIF image offers a significant reduction in file format compared to JPEG, PNG and WebP and is currently being supported in Firefox, Google Chrome etc.



Behavior-driven development (BDD) – is a behavior-based development strategy or software engineering, that evolved from TDD, but is not a testing technique. BDD specifies a common language for all stakeholders and developers.

BPM Platform – software platform that helps shape processes, define them, assign resources and execute them as applications. Typically BPM platforms also offer integrations to 3rd party systems (and can call their API to execute complex integration processes that invoke actions in different systems). Although in the basis BPM Platform is similar to Workflow Systems (where user can create digital solutions for operational processes) , it is usually much more complex than Workflow Systems – offers much more advanced planning tools, process visualizing tools. Novacura Flow can be recognized as BPM Platform because its applications can invoke different methods from different systems, can involve multiple users to work in one application. Novacura Flow offers some basic process instances monitoring capabilities.




Computer aided engineering (CAE) – the widespread use of computer software to support engineering analysis tasks. It includes Finite Element Analysis (FEA), computational fluid dynamics, so-called many-body dynamics, durability and optimization.

Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) – products that are pre-packaged or canned (off-the-shelf) hardware or software or digital products that are customized in the aftermarket to meet the needs of the purchaser organization. Novacura offer customized – COTS software for companies from different industries. 

Concurrent Versioning System (CVS) – a source code control system.

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) – a language used to organize and design the appearance of Web pages.

Component Object Model (COM) – interfejs dla komponentów oprogramowania.



Document Object Model (DOM) – a programming interface for HTML and XML documents.

Data Access Object (DAO) – a data access object that provides access to a database.

Data Definition Language (DDL) – SQL concept set data definition language used to create and change objects.

Digital transformation (DX) – the adoption of digital technology by an organization. Implement innovative solutions and improve efficiency, product and business value.



Engineer To Order (ETO) – a method of production characterized by engineering activities incorporated into the product or process lead time and the preparation of technical specifications without regard to customer requirements (which were not specified at the time of the order). The method required a significant amount of engineering design and analysis.

Extended binary coded decimal interchange code (EBCDIC) – is an 8-bit binary code for numeric and alphanumeric characters. Is an example of an encoding in which symbols, letters and numbers are represented in the binary system. Code has been developed and used by IBM. 

Electrically erasable programmable read only memory (EEPROM) – is a type of electronic device memory for storing relatively small volumes of data by allowing individual bytes to be erased and reprogrammed.

ECMAScript (ES) – a general-purpose programming language, originally designed as a scripting language for the World Wide Web.

Electromagnetic interference (EMI) – is the wireless spectrum, is a disturbance caused by an external source that affects an electrical circuit through electromagnetic induction, electrostatic coupling, or conduction

Enhanced Small Disk Interface (ESDI) – generalizes the control bus so that more types of devices (such as removable drives and tape drives) can be connected.

Embedded computer – a device that has its own computing power designed to perform specific functions, usually consisting of a microprocessor and firmware. The computer then becomes a permanent part of the device, as opposed to devices that are controlled by an independent, standalone computer. This means software that integrates the functions of the operating system and applications. This type of device is very common in warehouses and operations environments that require barcode scanners and the like.

Embedded software (IEEE) – software that is part of a larger system and meets some of the requirements of that system, such as software used in an aircraft or rapid transit system. Such software does not provide an interface with the user. This type of software complements mobile operation for devices used in distribution, e.g.: barcode scanners when collecting orders at the warehouse.


End user (ANSI) – an employee, device, program or computer system that uses an information system to process data to exchange information. A person whose occupation requires the use of an information system, but does not require any knowledge of computers or computer programming. End users may be people employed in the operation process, using digital devices to record the progress of work (mobile scanners, tablets, etc.).

Enterprise resource planning (ERP) –  is a centralized system for managing a company’s main operational processes. ERP system is supported through dedicated software and information technology. The software incorporates a complex of applications having various functions to support business management. The system allows the storage and processing of enterprise data. ERP system can be located locally on servers or can be built on the basis of the cloud. Cloud-based ERP solutions have gained popularity since 2010 due to their high accessibility via the Internet.



First Normal Form (1NF) – the first stage of creating a standardized database.


First In First Out (FIFO) – a job scheduling method that says that the first item is the first out.

FlowAppsingle workflow created in Novacura Flow Studio.  

Framework Class Library (FCL) – a standard library for Microsoft’s .NET environment, containing a collection of classes.



Graphic software specifications – digital documents on software data covering charts, diagrams, graphs that show program structure, data states, control, transaction flow, HIPO and cause-and-effect relationships. In addition, they contain information on events, change of states. These are primarily data necessary to establish the integrity of the programming design. It is also used when designing software for equipment in manufactures.

Graphic User Interface (GUI) – is a form of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through a graphical interface. An example of such an interface is to show a Wi-Fi or Bluetooth connection using specified graphical characters (icons). This type of solution is very popular for mobile devices (barcode scanners, phones) but also for many stationary devices on factory equipment.



Hardware Security Module (HMS) – apparatus for storing and managing security keys for critical authentication and cryptographic processing. This type of module is most often provided as an external device or is integrated into the motherboard. Very often it is a server plugged into the network.

Hazard analysis – a method used to identify possible failures affecting system performance, human safety or other required characteristics. This type of analysis is directly related to the estimation of software hazards, software security requirements, software security design, software security code, software security testing, software security changes. It is a key way to evaluate possible scenarios of data security events in the enterprise and operational subdivisions.

High-level language – a programming language that requires little knowledge of the target computer, can be translated into several different machine languages, allows symbolic naming of operations and addresses, provides functions to help express data structures and program logic, and usually results in several machine instructions for each program instruction. Examples include PL/1, COBOL, BASIC, FORTRAN, Ada, Pascal.




IFS Cloud™ – an enterprise resource planning (ERP) solution package developed by IFS that is designed to help organizations integrate data and processes across multiple departments and locations. It offers a wide range of customized modules for users to manage assets, project management, supply chain management and more. IFS Cloud is the next version for the well-known ERP system IFS Applications 10. IFS Cloud has been dedicated to replacing the previous version family called “IFS Applications.” In this version of the ERP solution, IFS breaks the previous convention of IFS packages, which were released several years after previous versions (including IFS Applications 8, 9, 10 upgrades). IFS promise to deliver 2 major upgrade releases per year. IFS calls this an “evergreen” strategy. IFS Cloud is a product name with cloud solution but its capabilities can be deployed on-premises in the customer’s data center (outside the cloud infrastructure managed by IFS).  

The IoT Connector (Internet of Things Connector) – was developed to share sensor data on the network. Sharing data involves transmitting information to so-called connectors (connectors) to devices (machines in production, etc.). This solution ensures that all sensor data is integrated into a single telemetry system.

Implementation phase (IEEE) – the time in the software life cycle when a software product is created based on design documentation and debugged.

Inudstry 4.0 (The Fourth Industrial Revolution) – the concept of rapid changes in technology, industry and social patterns and processes resulting from increasing interconnectivity and intelligent automation. For businesses, this means changes in productivity improvements, but also a significant shift in industrial capitalism.

Integrated Development Environment (IDE) – an application that provides developers with tools for developing software.

Independent software vendor (ISV) – an organization that specializes in developing and selling software, as opposed to hardware, for the mass or niche market. This is in contrast to in-house software, which is developed by the organization that will use it, or custom software, which is designed or customized for one particular third party. Although software provided by an ISV is used by end users, it remains the property of the supplier.



Just in time (JIT) – is a term associated with the so-called, Lean JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) – a format for exchanging data between applications.

Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) – a Java API that specifies how a client can access a database.

Java Development Kit (JDK) – is an implementation of the Java platform.

Java Runtime Environment (JRE) – a batch of the JDK that contains and organizes a set of tools and minimum requirements for executing Java applications.

JavaScript (JS) – the main programming language on the Internet.






Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) – a standard digital application protocol for accessing and maintaining distributed directory services on the Internet Protocol (IP) network. Directory services play an important role in the development of intranet and Internet applications, enabling the sharing of information about users, systems, networks, services and applications across the network. The protocol can be used by low-code platforms.

Low-code development platform (LCDP) – an interactive environment for developing application software using a graphical user interface. Low-code platform allows to develop applications using ready-made programming solutions in modular form or to supplement applications with additional solutions using professional coding. The low-code platform influences the reduction of the time spent on the development of system solutions allowing quick delivery or any modification of business applications. The advantage of the platform is a clear logic in the development of software solutions and even a complete architecture of integral systems for businesses, which does not require coding skills. At the same time, the lack of programming skills does not exclude proficient knowledge of business management in specific industries. The use of a low-code platform can significantly reduce the cost and speed of implementation of business solutions in a competitive business environment dependent on dynamic changes resulting from the volatility of industry trends and indirectly influenced by global economic changes.

Learn more about Low-code from Novacura. 




Multi-factor Authentication (MFA) – a method of protecting access to digital resources, such as an email inbox, access to databases in an organization, which prevents unauthorized individuals who may have a password and/or ID from logging into the data environment. In circumstances of multi-level authentication, the user should use an additional identification key (additional password or name, date of birth, etc.) in addition to the ID and password. Multi-level authentication can be used in warehouse operating conditions when accessing a specific production department, restricted operating area, etc.

Novacura Marketplacea library of applications prepared for Novacura Flow (for Flow Studio or Flow Portal), presented on the on the Novacura Flow users can download specific applications for their operational purposes. The applications are usually linked directly to the ERP system installed on the user’s servers. Novacura’s apps are an extension of the ERP system’s capabilities offered for mobile devices and PC stations, etc.

We provide a wide range of solutions for business processes.

Find a solution for your business and streamline your processes.




New product development (NPD) – the process of bringing a new product to market, renewing an existing product, or introducing a product to a new market. A central aspect of NPD is product design, along with various business aspects. New product development is generally defined as the transformation of a market opportunity into a marketable product.


Novacura Flow Studio basic designer tool for application developers, where customers and Novacura consultants create applications (FlowApps etc.) and configure basic parameters (users, rights, menus etc.).

Novacura Flowan official name of the Novacura Low-code platform 

Novacura Flow Web Client the tool for end users, where they use applications created in Novacura Flow Studio in their operational work; this client is created as web-based application and works in the Web Browser 

Novacura Flow Mobile Client – complementary module to the Web Client, that plays the same role, but created as a native application for mobile platforms (iOS, Android); The Web Client can also be used on mobile devices in the Internet browser, but the Mobile Client is better optimized (UI) and has additional capabilities not allowed for web-based applications (like access to camera, microphone, Bluetooth, files) 

Novacura Flow Portal advanced web-based application that can be used to prepare complex portal applications; offers various visual components (charts), and the entire layout of final applications is composed of Portlets. Flow Portal applications are created in the Flow Portal. This is digital tool that have 2 modes: one for designer, one for regular users. 

Novacura Flow Hub a central panel to administrate entire Novacura Flow Suite; a portal-style module where customers can view their licenses, payments, subscription details, marketplace, can administrate users etc.  

Novacura Flow Server a module that runs in the background on the server side; this module is used to store all apps definitions and orchestrate all running applications (supports the connectivity from all clients / portals and serves application data). This module is also responsible for the administration of all connections to the external systems 

Novacura Flow Connectors specific modules that operate on the server side (controlled by Flow Server) used to establish the connection with external systems (each type of connector “understands” specific communication protocol / specific API used by the external system).



Object oriented programming (OOP) – a programming paradigm based on the concept of objects.

Object Relational Mapping (ORM) – a programming method for converting data between incompatible systems using object-oriented programming languages.

Operations and maintenance (O&M) – the control of operations, servicing, repair or replacement of essential equipment, appliances, machinery, building infrastructure and auxiliary utilities in industrial, business and residential installations. Practices to keep equipment in working order; these actions are taken before or after an emergency.

On-prem Installationthe installation of software that is located in customer’s datacenter (usually in the customer’s office or server room).

Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) – a database used by business intelligence or data warehouses.

Online Transaction Processing (OTP) – an online transaction processing database used by common systems such as websites and corporate systems.


Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) – object linking and embedding A technology for embedding and linking to documents and other objects.

Open Data Protocol (OData) – a protocol that enables the creation and use of requests to interoperable REST APIs in a simple and standard way. The protocol enables the creation and use of REST APIs that allow web clients to publish and edit resources, identified by URLs and defined in a data model, via simple HTTP messages.



Personally Identifiable Information (PII) – a collection of information about an identified or identifiable natural person. An individual, is a person who can be identified by an identifier such as a name, identification number, location data, internet identifier or one or more specific factors that determine the physical, physiological, genetic, , , cultural or social, etc. identity of an individual. A term used in defining software algorithms and when creating employee databases, etc.



Quality Management System (QMS) – A system that documents the policies, procedures and controls necessary for an organization to create and deliver quality products or services to customers, thereby increasing customer satisfaction.

Quarter Buisness Review (QBR) – an analytical assessment of the business with forecasting of the company’s activities (held quarterly according to the company’s fiscal calendar).



Radio-frequency identification (RFID) – uses electromagnetic fields to automatically identify and track marking elements on objects or products. Correct operation of the RFID system is ensured by the presence of a radio transmitter, a data-receiving device and a transmitter (which is ultimately placed on products, objects). The receiving device triggers an electromagnetic signal, the transmitter transmits digital information to the device and coincident systems. The system allows rapid identification of products, materials and other objects. It is a method used to improve control of warehouse goods. RFID is an alternative to the barcode tag system.

Remote terminal unit (RTU) – is a microprocessor-controlled electronic device that connects objects of the physical world to a distributed control system or SCADA system (supervisory control and data acquisition) by transmitting telemetry data to the host system and by using messages from the host supervisory system to control connected objects.

Representational state transfer (REST) – software development architecture based on experience in coding HTTP protocol specifications for distributed systems. REST is characterized by a unified interface, Resource identification, resource manipulation, hypermedia as an application state engine.

Robotic process automation (RPA) – the introduction of technology based on the automation of business processes through the programming of device actions or artificial intelligence (AI). A term also known as software robotics (not to be confused with robot software). Companies using automation in their operational work area often choose the right software to facilitate data collection and help service technicians manage maintenance. This type of software allows for accurate and error-free servicing and ordering of replacement parts in a single application on a mobile device. Read more about process improvements with Novacura.



Safety Integrity Level (SIL) – the level of safety integrity or safety integrity of safety systems – a term for the relative level of risk reduction provided by a safety function for electronic devices. In simple terms, SIL is a measurement of the performance required for a safety instrumented function (SIF).

Single Customer View (SCV) – is an aggregated, consistent and holistic presentation of data held by an organization about its customers that can be viewed in one place, such as on a single website. The need for a single view stems from the ability to analyze past behavior in order to better target and personalize future interactions with customers on websites and beyond.

Second Normal Form (2NF ) – the second stage of creating a normalized database.

Single Sign-on (SSO) – is a digital authentication scheme that allows a user to log in with a single ID to any of several related but independent software systems. A proper login of this type allows the user to log in and access services without re-entering authentication elements. During this type of login, the user’s IP number is collected, which serves as an automatic identifier during each subsequent login attempt. The login method can be used by operations staff to save time spent on stopping work at the PC station.

Software as a Service (SaaS) – software that is available online and that users can access as needed. An alternative to software that is downloaded from a source area. Specific type of the subscription offered by Novacura software development company, where the software installation is in the cloud (no on-prem) and it is fully managed by the SaaS software vendor.  

Subversion (SVN) – a source code control system.

Systems engineering (SE) – an area of engineering and management, focusing on the design, integration of systems in their life cycle. Engineering activities aimed at organizing and structuring work areas using systems developed for this purpose. The systems engineering process focuses on the discovery of a new methodology and is different from the manufacturing process. It begins with the process of discovering the real problems that need to be solved and identifying the most likely or most serious failures. Systems engineering is about fixing these problems.



Transport Layer Security (TLS) – a cryptographic protocol designed to ensure the security of computer network communications. The protocol is widely used in applications such as email, instant messaging and voice over IP, but its use to secure HTTPS is most publicly visible. An extension of the Secure Socket Layer (SSL) protocol, originally designed by Netscape Communications. TLS ensures the confidentiality and integrity of data transmission, as well as server and user authentication. The protocol works on the basis of asymmetric encryption and X.509 certificates. TLS is a standard used on the Internet network.

Third Normal Form (3NF) – the final stage of creating a standardized database.

Test-driven development (TDD) – a software development process that is based on the repetition of a short development cycle: requirements are transformed into specific test cases, and then the code is revised so that the tests pass.




Universal Time Coordinated (UTC) – is the basic time standard by which clocks and time are regulated around the world.

Universally unique identifier (UUID) – a 128-bit number used to identify information in computer systems.

User Experience (UX) – defining a design process aimed at creating products that provide users with meaningful and relevant experiences.

The user interface (UI) – a device’s dedicated for human-computer communication and interaction. It can incorporate displays, keyboards, mouse and desktop display and many other devices that are suitable to be used in purpose of supporting manual actions made by the human. It is also the method by which the user interacts with an application or website.



Volume License Key (VLK) – the term is used by some companies that develop computer software, which is then used to install software under a volume license. Licenses of this type are mainly intended for the B2B market for companies operating in an environment that requires sharing digital tools, applications for a larger number of employees. An example of such a license is MS Office (a Microsoft product), made available to corporations.


Visual Source Safe (VSS) – system kontroli kodu źródłowego.

Virtual reality (VR) –  an image of graphic space developed using digital technology. It relies on the transmission of a multidimensional image created as close as possible to images of real objects, environments, etc. can also imitate objects and environments created in computer graphics without relative reflection in the real world.

Virtual private network (VPN) – a type of Internet connection that creates traffic based on a private network. The connection can optionally be encrypted or compressed for higher quality and better security.




What you see is what you get (WYSIWYG) – Microsoft Word is a popular example that defines a WYSIWYG editor. The user is presented with a blank page with some formatting tools, words, images, tables, etc. What you see on screen is exactly what you see when you print the document.

Workflow – simple business process that involves human work (usually visualized as a diagram) – list of steps assigned to particular persons (resources). Software solution that is used to design processes and then execute them as applications. These applications are designed to process documents and pass them from one person to another through mobile devices etc.



You Ain’t Gonna Need It (YAGNI) – a software development principle that says you should only create features that are known.



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